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Stimulating these mineral grains using either light (blue or green for OSL; infrared for IRSL) or heat (for TL) causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral.

Most luminescence dating methods rely on the assumption that the mineral grains were sufficiently "bleached" at the time of the event being dated.

The amount of light emitted during luminescence measurement of the sediment depends upon the total radiation dose to which the crystalline material has been exposed during its burial and is called as natural signal.

This measured signal provides a measure to the palaeodose received in the intervening period of burial.

Heat or light can eject charges from traps T back into the conduction band.

When an electron recombines with a luminescence center L, a photon is emitted.

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These are measured by a photomultiplier tube within a luminescence reader and are used to estimate the Equivalent Dose (De) of absorbed radiation required to create that signal, and is measured in Grays (1 Gy = 1J/kg).

The radiation causes charge to remain within the grains in structurally unstable "electron traps".

The trapped charge accumulates over time at a rate determined by the amount of background radiation at the location where the sample was buried.

All sediments and soils contain trace amounts of radioactive isotopes of elements such as potassium, uranium, thorium, and rubidium.

These slowly decay over time and the ionizing radiation they produce is absorbed by mineral grains in the sediments such as quartz and potassium feldspar.




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